The Era of the Five Emperors is the starting point of the Chinese civilization and the source of Chinese national culture. The Yellow Emperor tribe is not only the earliest tribe in the Era of the Five Emperors, but also the tribe whose activities developed in the Central Plains. To study the Chinese civilization, we must study the Era of the Five Emperors. To study the Era of the Five Emperors, we must study the Yellow Emperor tribe. In the Era of the Five Emperors, the Chinese civilization started from multiple points at the same time and developed in multiple parallel ways. During the Xia, Shang and Zhou dynasties, the development changed into a “unity in diversity” pattern with the Central Plains culture as the core. The motivation of this change lies in the development of farming production, the continuous integration of neighboring tribes and the expansion of influence of the Yellow Emperor tribe in the Central Plains. Meanwhile, the “unity in diversity” pattern still has the Central Plains as its core, which reflects the far-reaching influence of the Yellow Emperor tribe and the continuity of the development of the Chinese civilization. The study of the Era of the Five Emperors involves many issues, which needs to be conducted with comprehensive consideration in combination with philology, historical geography, archaeology, ethnology and other disciplines. The Era of the Five Emperors and the origin of the Chinese civilization should be understood against the general context that the world system in China then was changing from the East Asian system to the Eurasian system. The crescent-shaped bronze culture belt tilted from northeast to southwest put forward by Mr. Tong Enzheng earlier, which is the underlining reason for the sustainable development of the Chinese civilization in the Central Plains from the Era of the Five Emperors to the Xia, Shang and Zhou dynasties, is worth further scrutinization.